Enlightenment was Endarkenment

Religion of Reason suppressed Emotion
enlightenment was endarkement
enlightenment: reason is superior to emotion
Humanism = In Reason We Trust enlightenment = endarkenment Ideas replace Behavior

Rationality substitutes Religion

The 'rational' system of replacing churches and cathedrals with schools and universities (have a look here), as started in Enlightenment aims at replacing belief in 'God' with the belief 'understanding'. This way of education values the belief 'understanding' much higher than effective goal oriented behavior, as if 'understanding' makes you able to design behavior. Instead of considering 'understanding' as memorizing/juggling behavior-steps.
To be fair, a few Enlightenment thinkers condemned the excessive emphasis of even universities on business and market criteria such as efficiency and profit. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) was one of the first who warned that this way of practicing science distanced man from nature (intuition).

In 1854 Red Indian Chief Seattle in a famous speech said: Human kind has not woven the web of life, we are but one thread within it. Whatever we do to the web we do to ourselves. All things are bound together. All things connect.
religion of reason (mind) After Enlightenment (Age of Reason, = (1700-1850) Europe, and even MUCH more The New World (United States), culturally got isolated from the rest of the world, deeper in their own 'rational' reality. Enlightenment initiated the 'rational' reality of the present Western World. The Enlightenment idea that the universe is 'rational' that fit well into 'deism' (with god = ratio), the belief that a god created the universe and its laws and then retired.

Enlightenment started a 'religion of reason'. That especially influenced The New World because a lot of members of this 'religion of reason' went there.
For ANY decision (like the simple 'left or right') our body needs emotion, so a schooling system that neglects handling emotion must end in disaster. Such schooling was started Enlightenment, it took the existence of 'intelligence' as fact and aimed at improving that 'intelligence' . Destroying intuition might take a few ages, but nevertheless.

Without Enlightenment, and without WWII, an extremely ' rational' United States and a by the US dominated Europe, as we know it today, wouldn't exist.
In a nutshell: Enlightenent broke the dominance of aristocracy and replaced it with a dominance of 'rationality'.

To make sense of the Enlightenment 'obsession' with 'reason', that in extreme shape fled to South Africa and The New World, it is enlightening to realize the HUGE influence of Catholicism.
How complex things shows the fact that my 'Enlightenment airlines' picture in a very popular presentation about Benjamin Franklin is used to point at his 'scientific rationality' and his 'cultural relativism'. I have no opinion whatsoever about Franklin in particular, but in their writings and declarations the American Founding Fathers showed to be an extremely 'rational bunch'. No 'scientific' room for emotion.
Since start, for many ages, Catholicism drilled into the collective memory of Western people that god is the designer of the universe, or, said in another way, that reality is driven by intelligence. And that 'intelligence' deserves respect.
For the Roman leaders religion was a very effective way to mould the Roman people into fearing/respecting their leaders, and ready to die for them. Under Catholicism this was perfected, the 'mind' of the Pope was able to mobilize all of Europe, as the Crusades showed.
The 'ratio' of Enlightenment is a way to bring this presumed 'intelligence' in reality into the open, but still under the catholic presumption that there IS an intelligent design hidden in reality.
A dual reality based on the existence of an immaterial something (soul, intelligence, ...), because of the belief that there is MORE than material.

Europe's isolation already started with Alexander the Great who made the Middle East into a huge barrier between Asia and Europe, by spreading the addictive ideas of Aristotle.
This barrier was strengthened 8 ages later by Catholicism (Council of Chalcedon), another 2 ages later by Islam (Muslim Catholicism), and now in Enlightenment 13 ages after Chalcedon is reinforced out of protestant corner.

Protestantism wasn't 'rational' in itself, but 'rationality' appealed to protestants. The Cult-of-Ra-tio (French: Temple de la Raison) was, during the French Revolution, a temple for a new RELIGION created to replace Catholic Christianity. By subsituting the abstract catholic 'god' (in practice the pope and catholic rulers), with the even more abstract 'reason'. 'Reason' is presumed to be 'objective' ( independent of bodily emotion).
The revolt was against religious and traditional catholic authority. Both had brutally suppressed the people. Catholicism treated the masses of believers as a huge herd of dum sheep, now 'Raison' values the 'individual'. That this would result in extreme egoism was not foreseen.
You might call this enlightenment revolt, where the catholic Fear of God is replaced with the 'rational' Worship of Ratio, a paradigm shift INSIDE the western paradigm. The Notre Dame church was renamed to Temple de la Raison.
To make things difficult, protestant 'rationals' stayed protestant.
enlightenment: liberty in a Prison of Understanding
Emotion-independent Religion of Reason

rationality pschychopathy Puritan Protestantism in Enlightenment created an emotion-independent religion of reason, historians call the French revolution 'the reign of terror'. A statue of Liberty would replace the image of the 'Blessed Virgin', it is good to remember that the American Statue of Liberty is connected to mass bloodshed (reason versus emotion).
Especially men, but some women too, started to see emotion as weakness. A kind of psychopath cultural reality. Hiding/suppressing emotion became a way to show 'rational' strength. Cruelty became possible, as strong 'rational' judgement without considering emotion. King Louis XVI was beheaded. Power was shifting and the guillotine often couldn't keep up with the demand to remove heads. The Cult of Ra-tio was based on atheism, mind over body split, belief in superiority of human 'minds', ignoring of intuition, and on existence of 'understanding.

Enlightenment started a period of protestant dominancy in Northern Europe (England, Greater Germany, Skandinavia).
Because (to make things confusing) most 'rationals' remained protestant, and made their god into a 'rational god'. The Netherlands and Belgium were special cases, Holland and Flanders became dominantly protestant, but the Netherlands and Belgium as a whole dominantly catholic. This led to a peculiar unbalance, industry dominantly protestant and government mainly catholic. In much lesser degree this destructive split was found everywhere in Northern Europe. Though later catholicism (silently) accepted 'rationality' too, as being not religious (sick) and not conflicting with catholicism (true).

The Cult of Ra-tio or Cult of Thought replaced Catholicism, but the name 'Temple' (protestant church in French) suggests that the new movement was closer to fundamentalist protestantism.
Let's see here... Lack of empathy, use of manipulation and deception for personal gain, cruelty as power tool, disregard of social rules, being paranoid, absence of remorse

We strongly recommend immigration to the US, to take a career in: topmanagement, law, politics, FBI, CIA, maffia, serial killing
The final result was the colonization by brute force of America, after the most puritan protestants fled from a by catholics dominated Europe. Northern Europe stayed protestant, but not anymore that emotion unfriendly as the puritan colonists of South Africa and America. Many prominent founders of the United States were of Huguenot descent.

massacre of red indians by pilgrims

A flashback shows that the protestant 'revolution' inside catholicism certainly was not only positive: Apartheid, red indian genocide, black slavery, ...WWI, WW2/holocaust, Korean War, Vietnam War, Iraq War, Afghan War, War on Terrorism. Perhaps the most murderous period in history. Catholicism had proved to be murderously intolerant for non-catholics and had become totally corrupt and oppressive, but the puritan variant of protestantism even proved worse.
The belief 'ratio' : law and order

Dare to know! (Sapere aude.) 'Have the courage to use your own understanding' is another motto of the enlightenment. This suggests that showing/using emotion is a weakness, and that strong behavior must be steered by 'intelligence' alone (and must be controlled by law).
The religion 'ratio' was supposed to be universal and to spread the ideas of the revolution, summarized in its main motto "Liberté, égalité, fraternité". The ritual language of this cult was: 'rational language'.

This new shape of 'oppression' smothered already initiating social revolutions against aristocratic and hereditary power. Language Imperialism replaced physical war (Imperialism) with 'addiction to words'. It was close to a major paradigm shift. People suddenly became willing to die for 'words' like 'freedom' (empty abstract concepts).
The former rule of life 'might makes right' was replaced by values around the word 'equality'.

A kind of zombie paradise.
'Rationals' emphasize the self. Equality of 'individuals', equality before the law, social justice, universal human rights and democracy for individuals. 'A man's word is his bond' was replaced with 'freedom of speech'.

Power shifted from the 'upper class' to an 'upper middle class', where shrude individuals (superzombies) proved to be masters in creating 'law and order' environments to controll all kind of equalities, but without restrictions on huge personal gains.
This system of 'rational' social principles raised the average standard of living in the west to never seen before levels. Rational technology realized 'miracles.
Practically all progress was realized by exploitation of people and resources outside the Western World for personal gain. But for a few ages this 'dark secret' was kept hidden from general attention, by usage of all kinds of myths. From 'stupid blacks are happy to serve as slave for western masters' to 'infinite growth'

The general idea was that by worship of Ra-tio, man could pass 'the final fronture'. 'The church' was replaced by a trust in logic and individuality, a puritan suppression of emotion.
This Cult of Ra-tio copied a lot from The Church of catholicism: schools as churches, universities as cathedrals, teachers as priest of reason, professors as highpriests, ratio as god, theory as belief.
New credo: life = pure ra-tio. Rules, police, lawyers, prisons and big brother can do the job.

Enlightenment worshipped Ra-tio in 2 ways: 1) practical Ra-tio (natural sciences, technical sciences); 2) humanistic Ra-tio (social sciences).
Humanistic rationality from the very start was split in a moderate part that was open to change and a puritan part. The part open to change evolved to modern social science, but is a church nevertheless.
Puritanism in hard shape fled from England via Holland to the New World. During the course of the early seventeenth century, however, increasing numbers of immigrants, extreme Calvinistic Protestants, managed to establish a group of autonomous North American colonies, including Plymouth (1620), Massachusetts (1628), New Hampshire (1629), Connecticut (1633), Maine (1635), Rhode Island (1636), and New Haven (1638). American Puritanism would become more severe than the European variant.

kant-dualism The position of Immanuel Kant end of Enlightenment is illustrative. Kant revived 'metaphysics', and following Aristotelian tradition in Catholicism and Protestantism adopts the view that our 'mind' determines the nature of our experiences (mind body split).
In fact Kant claims that 'intelligence' is 'in the mind', causing the belief that there is more than skill.
Since then the debates about 'intelligence', 'understanding', 'consciousness' show that it is not fruitful to discuss things that don't materially exist.

kant conceptual scheme

Kant about Enlightenment:
Enlightenment is the emancipation of man from .... incapacity to use his own 'intelligence' without external guidance.
Henk Tuten: Again presuming that immaterial 'intelligence' exist.

Puritanism echoes in American society today. The American Puritans changed the course of history.
In Europe outside England and Germany most of hard Puritanism (Lutheranism, Calvinism) disappeared, but in America it was the driving force behind slavery, Industrialism, Capitalism, Klu Klux Klan, ...
American Rationalism directly evolved out of hard Puritanism. After WWII American rationalism conquered Europe.
Cult of Ra-tio (Religion of Reason)

1. The Founding Fathers of the United States were heavily 'drugged' by Enlightenment-ideas like 'deism' (belief in Supreme Being) easily accepted slavery of non-christian human animals. The 'Law of Nations' was strongly influenced by the German 'rationalists' Leibnitz and Christian von Wolff. Much more than on the ideas of Locke.
2. European adventurers in Africa promoted the hunting down of men, women and children like beasts, and the burning down of complete villages to capture the inhabitants and sell them like cattle. Such slave traders presented Africans as murderous savages so that extremely brutal slavehunting and inhuman transportation to the Americas appeared as 'Christian concern' and 'enlightened' behavior. European 'Enlightenment' caused darkness in Africa.

Enlightenment made a cult around 'reason' (later: 'understanding'), and promoted 'liberty', 'science', 'rationality' and 'divine' or 'natural law' (the catholic view of life).
The Cult of Ra-tio resulted from the wish for individual profit (egoism) and tremendously expanded skill, but only in the Western World. It was based on belief in infinite growth, and in practice that mostly meant exploitation of the Third World.

Rationalism during Enlightenment was adopted by leading rulers and politicians, and thus weakened the authority of the Pope. In this way it broke down the defences of Catholicism.
Especially those who frequented the universities were affected by the victory of Ra-tio in Enlightenment. Everywhere throughout Europe, 'ra-tionalism' conquered the centres of education.
In 1946 German social theorist Max Horkheimer traced 'the collapse of a large part of the intellectual foundation of our civilisation'. back to the Enlightenment.

Defenders of 'rationalism' and 'individualism' often say: The Enlightenment brought us reliance on the individual, not God or nature
Replacing god 'God' by god 'Ra-tio' is not something to be proud of. And 'reliance on the individual' translated means 'egoism'.
Henk Tuten: You might say that a 21th century billionaire relies on individual egoism and values his Ego and Ra-tio higher than the life of say 1 million people in Africa.
western dualism: human arrogance
Killing Emotion

Making emotion more consistent like done in the Westen World resulted in great deeds, but in the end resulted in 'killing' emotion and a steerless society.
Catholicism and variants (the West) in religious way worshipped the effective use of logic as 'intelligence' (given by god; mind-body split).
Instead of pragmatically treating the applying of logic as skill.
The Catholic way of treating reality as twofold (god and world; soul and body; intelligence and matter; ..) became a part of western collective memory. A serious barrier for communication with non western cultures.

Western Society showed (with a world wide network of schools and universities as churches of 'rationality') that logic is a magnificent TOOL to make the decision-unit 'emotion' more effective.

ancient civilizations 'Rationality' made the Western World into the dominant world on earth.
But human civilization started in and around Asia.

Side effect of 'rationality' was that in the Western World egoism grew like wildfire (lack of emotion).
In the 21st century this resulted in Western World crisis, while Asia is doing better and better.

In The East the experience about our body as balance seeker and archive of skill/emotion is still available.
But in the 21st century The East must use the effective sides of 'rationality' without it becoming over dominant as in the West.
West needs Rest and Rest needs West.

Loss of control of the HUGE fysiological talents of our body was through the ages gradually the result of the emphasis on 'intelligence'.
The balance in the 'human herd' was obstructed, finally resulting in things like 'capitalism' where 'intelligent' egoists exploit fellow people. In the 21st century especially 'intelligent' western humans might get 100 years of age, without in those 100 years communicating anything useful to following generations.

The treatment of the hallucination 'intelligence' as 'thing in itself' sorted the talents of humans in western society in peculiar way, with on top more and more not 'servant leaders' but 'intelligent' individualists/egoists/psychopaths. Reaching high age, while those that are exploited and perform physical labor often die much earlier.

human mammals human mammals When we refuse to see our talents as (complex) mammals and at the same time deny that there are more human cultural realities, then we can't effectively communicate between different cultural realities
Then like junks addicted to the hard drug 'intelligence', we are unwilling to awake from our deep cultural dream.

Worldwide people are on a search for something/someone to identify themselves with.
Most countries and a majority of multinationals go on with ego-ism. The exploited and polluted earth seems in deadly way strangled by the players of the powergame 'economy'.
Not a world you want to leave to your children

The human species is in danger. By a crisis 'made in the western world', but that needs worldwide cooperation of human herds to survive it.
Don't expect computer technology to do the job, even while using virtual realities we're still human animals.
A radical break with the past in both East and West is needed to survive the present worldwide crisis.

Life is a group-ACTIVITY
servant leadership
BEHAVE like a 'family' ('To be' a 'relative' or 'to have' a 'relative' doesn't mean much)
Food and shelter for your 'family' (To be 'rich' or to be 'good' doesn't mean much

To be 'I' means nothing, but to behave points at activity.
To have 'rights' means nothing, but to protect your family is an activity.
To be 'free' means nothing, but to live together is an activity.  
To have 'freedom' or 'liberty' means nothing, but to exploit others is very real.
To 'own' oil means nothing, but to use oil for survival is a group activity.
To bring 'freedom', 'democracy', 'equality', 'human rights' means nothing.

To survive  as individual mammal means nothing, life is about survival as species.
To behave like family is to cooperate as one group.