Alexander the 'Great' created a Great Hellenic Wall between western mind body dualism and
Asian mind body monism
The language imperialism of Alexander the Great (336–323 B.C.) would change the face of Europe and Asia forever
Ancient ambitious drunk, paranoid, genocidal megalomaniac royal Slavehunter
(crime scene investigation of a great criminal mind)
Hellenism as barrier between Asia and Europe
I notice that Alexander the Cursed/Great in Persian history is similar to Hitler in Jewish history. If like Alexander Hitler had succeeded in conquering much of the world, then Western history would have been essentially different.
Alexander the Great will be remembered in 'the West' as the emperor who spread Hellinism.
The later Romans admired Alexander the Great and his tutor the greek philosopher Aristotle.
Aristotle that way became the philosopher behind catholicism, behind the 'rational' Western World.
Alexander's middle east blitz empire 'the dictatorship of reason' created a radical break in cultural reality.
You could the first serious case of language imperialism. He not only brought greek, but Greek cultural reality (values, rules, rituals, ....).
A huge barrier between Asia and Europe.
My intuition tells me that European reality being isolated from Asian reality by the barrier of the dual Hellenism was decisive in world history, a major shift.
Aristotle held use of logic as superior to emotion, a 'tragedy of reason'.
After revival of Aristotle works by Thomas Aquinas logical manipulation increasingly was seen as 'intelligence',
and logicians seen as elite reasoners. Those reasoners more and more created a western world based on private interests (political behavior).
After 2 milennia, in its last stage (war on terror) this was known as 'capitalism'.
|In ancient superstitious times, many years after the Jewish Temple had been finished, a little prince
was born as son of the biggest slavehunter in the Western World. Unfortunately a slavehunter with a superior army.
Little emotionally neglected prince Alexander the Terrible was totally serious when he said childish things like: My father is king of Macedon, but I mean to be king of the whole world."
Alexander considered his tutor Aristotle as role-model. Aristotle's view of human life:
a static nature (god) with some superior humans with big 'god-factor' ('anima') and many
humans with mainly animal intuition (barbarians), and further a lot of animals and plants.
The first step to mass murder is a belief in good and evil
Mother Olympias Olympias (ca. 375-316 BC; 4th wife of Philip II) inspired Alexander to believe that he was the human son of the Uppergod from space Zeus Ammon.
Both father and mother had psychopath traits, so its not strange that prince Alexander lost most contact with reality.
used in religious way
caused a barrier of cultural
conflict between Europe/MiddleEast and Asia
We all know the dangers of disasters with big meteors, or less explosive the danger of cancer.
But do we realize that cultural activity too can have HUGE consequences?
The most important cultural result of the blitz conquests of Alexander the Great was a 'permanent' barrier between MiddleEast/Europe and Asia.
(interesting side fact: Alexander nor his generals ever conquered The Kingdom of Armenia)
The dual view on life in Hellenic culture (ideal versus practice)
collided with the 'nature is all' view in Asia.
Mencius was the most famous early defender in China of Confucian philosophy.
Instead of distinguishing cultural oppositions like 'good' and 'evil', Mencius, or Meng Tzu (372-289 BC)
speaks about behavior and its consequences (neither positive nor negative) , around the same time that Hellenism settled dualism in the Middle East.
There is logic in the viewpoint that 21th century Western World, in term of basing culture on a sound view of what humans are (apes with large brain), now reached the point that China reached
2 millennia ago. On the other side: in terms of technology amazing things developed in the Western World.
Alexander the Great unpurposely spread the Greek dualism and kept Asian culture (Taoism, Buddhism)
away from Europe.
Instead he prepared the conditions for the Roman Empire, Muslim Empire and the succes of Hinduism in India.
Both Roman Christianity and Islam are based on a very onesided Hellenic interpretation of Zoroastrianism.
Catholicism and Islam conquered most of the world and have a HUGE influence on our view of reality.
Alexander the Great also indirectly caused that the warriorlike Hinduism (with casts and slavery) 'won' from peaceful Buddhism in India
Kings in Northen India lost their many of their best fighters to Buddhism, when they retreated into Buddhist monasteries.
This made these kingdoms an easy prey to the foreign invader Alexander the Great, though he soon was totally defeated by Hindu King Porus.
To be honest there are no directs accounts that point at either loss or victory, but the indirect accounts SEEM to contradict a victory.
Anyway Indian kings after Alexander's time preferred Hinduism.
The Romans brought the dual Hellenic culture to Europe.
Islam many ages after Alexander bloodily anninhilated Buddhism in India while it (at that time
) tolerated Hinduism (at some point in history
that changed in mutual hatred
That way Alexander made the barrier with the Far East even greater.
The invasion of the Muslims and the ruthless destruction of Buddhist monasteries and the wholesale massacre of its monks was the end of Buddhism in North India.
Buddhism spread to southeast Asia as the principal religion of Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam until today.
The peaceful Buddhism got many adherents throughout the rest of Asia as well, in Sri Lanka, Tibet, China, Korea, and Japan.
Islam used Hindu India as base for penetrating East-Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia, ..).
The dual world view in Catholicism and Islam, distinguishing a rational virtual reality superior to a material reality, creates cultural conflicts.
Because when, like in Catholicism and Islam
, logic is used religiously (to define good and evil; fundamentalism),
then the result is conflict (war or cold war).
That barrier until present caused a near to permanent cultural division of Taoism/Buddhism and RomanChristianity/Islam.
Jerusalem was the key of Middle East Persian influence.
So that's where Superman Alexander, after
with his practically undefeatable army having plundered the Persian satrapies Lydia (334BC) and Phrygia (333BC King Midas) in Minor Asia, started his raid against in his eyes 'barbarian' Persia (the far away Zoroastrian Persia seen as world full of pagans).
Because Alexander's mentor the wizard Aristotle had thoroughly trained him to see the robust Macedonians as a higher kind
of beings compared to everybody else, and
to see refined Persians as extremely dangerous 'barbarians' (21st century Puritans say: "godless terrorists"), born as flesh
fit to be killed by superior Greek, after exploitation in hard labor, sex or warfare.
Alexander threatened to destroy Jerusalem (and to rob the temple full of by Persia donated gold) and out of fear the pro Israel Jews welcomed him.
After two ages of serving as a vassal state to Persia, Judah suddenly became vassal state of Macedon,
a Greek state. For until then Persia was worldpower; now in a blink of an eye, Judah fell to the Greek.
The Judean Jews bitterly hated the for them totally foreign Greek, different from the inhabitants of Israel who welcomed Hellenism .
In turn for obedience Alexander granted the Jews Jerusalem and continuing of a hellenistic version of their religion (with specially educated pro hellenistic pharisees) , in return for being disloyal to Zoroastrian Persia.
(and suppressed the in Judah since Babylon popular Zoroastrian religion).
This way Alexander made the dominant Samarians (Israelians) into allies of his murderous Hellenic Empire, by claiming to be superior to the Persian 'barbarians'.
Alexander conquered Jerusalem without fight. And went on to Egypt.
Quotes of Alexander the Great Curse:
(about his teacher Aristotle): I am indebted to my father for living , but to my teacher for living well
(about zombie behavior): The law is reason, free from passion
Influence of Alexander the Great: 'Rationality'
Alexander spread the 'mind body split' view on life of his tutor Aristotle (schooling, but moral/ethical training as well
), by way of using
his compact very disciplined army of ruthles soldiers ('hellhounds') to perform emotionless tactical actions. With help of emotionless tactics
(some sacrificing whole squadrons)
his professional army of say 40.000 soldiers could 'easily' beat an army of 'amateurs' of 10 times that size
The Middle East in the time of Alexander armies was bunch of kingdoms that together made the Persian Empire.
The Persian rulers trusted on brute force and power of HUGE numbers.
That way in about 10 years the unimaginably power hungry Alexander could beat all major armies in the Middle East.
The tremendous victories of the army of Alexander the Great were based on
ruthlessly without emotion executing any command, a tactical killing machine.
Quite soon after a few smaller victories in Northwestern India (present day Pakistan)
the Macedonians sensed total defeat.
In a battle with troops of King Porus of the Punjab (also known as Purushottama, Parvateshwar, Parvataka, Por, Paurava, Puru
)at the river Jhelum (in an area that today is used by the Pakistan army for military exercises
Alexander had to decide between dying or the humiliation of flying, and called for a truce, which Porus accepted.
Possibly in return for territories (Ambhi and Abisares
) that would secure his frontiers, Porus assisted the Macedonians in leaving India safely.
Now Porus ruled over a kingdom bordered by the banks of Jhelum and Purushapura (now Peshawar).
Alexander left totally hellenized governments from Egypt to India, that prevented strong leadership to return.
When Alexander died in 323 BC he left no heir to the throne. Thus intense struggle broke out among his many generals over control of the vast empire.
Roxana, Alexander's wife, had given birth to a son, the rightful heir to the throne.
Cassander, one of the generals, immediately solved the problem by killing both Roxana and baby.
After 11 years of struggle the division of the kingdom stabilized:
Ptolemy --- Egypt, Palestine, Arabia, and Peterea.
Seleucus --- Syria, Babylonia, Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Persia, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Pakistan (See map
And after 301 also the Kingdom of general Lysemachus: Thrace and Bythinia.
After 301BC with the exception of Macedon (Cassander), the entire empire was now controlled by the Seleucids in the North
and the Ptolemies in the South .
These dynasties ruled until the establishment of Roman supremacy.
And the Macedonian 'hellhounds' in turn were replaced bij Roman 'hellhounds'. .....
The Roman regime spread 'law and order' over Europe, Spain brought it to South America and Portugal to Africa/Asia.
In Europe the Catholic variant Lutheranism was even more Aristotelian (totally rule based)
Lutheranism 'conquered' especially Northern Europe, before the most fanatic Lutherans were forced to leave Europe.
Calvinist Holland brought law and order to Indonesia and South Africa.
In Northern America Lutheranism/Calvinism constructed a 'law and order' based New World.
The British Empire brought 'law and order' to all of India, parts of China.
In WW I and WWII 3 variants of Lutheranism were fighting (Germany, UK and US).
After WWII the US-variant of Lutheranism came back to Europe, and gradually strangled the last traces of leadership based on willpower.
Resulting in a rapidly weakening Europe (more and more corrupt) that is running towards recession
Hellenism and Roman Catholicism
|Later after Alexander conquered Jerusalem in 332 BCE the Samarian Jews, bitter enemies of the Judah Jews, convinced Alexander that the Judah
Jews' refusal to place his image in their Temple was a sign of
rebellion against his reign, and that the Holy Temple should be destroyed.
This Samaritan plot failed, but shows the fundamental hatred that Samaritan Jews (Israelites) felt for Judeans (Palestines). Still hidden source of the 21st century Israel-Palestine Conflict.
Confusing is that the Roman Christian Pro Israel Powers and the Mohammedan Pro Palestine Powers are ALL based on the same agressive sources: Hellenism and Roman Catholicism.
|Alexander the Great worshipped Aristotle. When Alexander and his army of zombies in ancient times annihilated the common sense Persian Empire the Western World
got trapped in the Aristotelian Paradigm.
Adolf Hitler admired Wernher von Braun (Dr. Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun). When the United States Empire
succeeds in dominating earth, Than earth wil be trapped in
the fascist Von Braunian Paradigm. With institutions similar to NASA, FBI, CIA, Klu Klux Klan....Dominated by 'the masses', army generals, 'scientists', psychologers, sociologers, lawyers and accountants.
|Alexander the Great did cut the ties between huge Abrahamic Persia and tiny Abrahamic Judah (like US and Hawai),
and in fact made it possible that much later Catholicism and its Muslim variant Muhammedanism twisted history in Europe
and Middle East. Judean 'christianity' was a variant of Zoroastrianism, and not even close to Catholicism or Islam.
Alexander the Great is mentioned in the OT (Maccabees) as follows:
This history begins when Alexander the Great, son of Philip of Macedonia, marched from Macedonia and attacked Darius, king of Persia and Media. Alexander enlarged the Greek Empire by defeating Darius and seizing his throne.
2 He fought many battles, captured fortified cities, and put the kings of the region to death.
3 As he advanced to the ends of the earth, he plundered many nations; and when he had conquered the world, he became proud and arrogant.
4 By building up a strong army, he dominated whole nations and their rulers, and forced everyone to pay him taxes
Alexander The Cursed - Hitler The Great
Conqueror of the Ancient World, The ten-horned Beast, Warrior of dominator view, Dictator of the Third Reich, Emperor of the Greater Germanic Reich
Alexander the 'Great' was the first horrible example of the addictive power of the belief of his tutor
Aristotle in the Western ritual behavior 'Superiority'. Aristotle tried to make 'Superiority' sensible
by inventing an abstract intelligence (god) as Pure Non-Being and beings with differen mixtures of intelligence and material (humans, barbarians, apes, plant, ...).
Aristotle produced in Nicomachean ethics custom-made 'science-fiction' for Alexander the Great before the words 'scientia' and 'fiction' existed.
Filipos and his son Alexander were deeply hated in Athens
Hitler considered 'the Jews' as evil.
Moreover he liked to imagine Nazis as 'Arians'.
Without any reason referring to the ancient "Aryan" land (ancient Persia + Afghanistan in times of the wise King Darius the Great).
Alexander's guru Aristotle felt that Zoroastrianism (the official religion in the wealthy Aryan land) was a threat.
In my school time in Europe the sixties in Holland Alexander was pointed to as 'The Horrible' ("de Verschrikkelijke"). The common sense description 'horrible' gradually changed in the abstract 'great'.
The cruel Macedonian dictatorship
was deeply hated in Athens, and Aristotle who came from a family since many generations related to The Macedonian House was seen as a moneyslave of the ruling 'Spirituals' (slave-hunters).
Alexander's army by annihilating the refined Persian culture in practically all aspects resembles American colonists
wiping out socially refined Red Indian culture and butchering 9 Africans to get 1 slave (MANY millions of dead). Three mass genocides of mythical proportions.
|Alexander saw Persians as barbarians, and his 'Spirit-Steered' army looted the 'heathen' Zoroastrian temples, killed raped and burned.
Finished by mass butchery.
Zoroastrianism never recovered, leaving Persia as open wound for other 'spiritual' vultures (Mohammedan zombies
of muslim copy of Roman Catholicism).
Making movies like love-stories around Alexander the Cursed is like making love
to a psychotic crocodile. Alexander getting illusional was not his fault,
but his belief in superiority, expressed in butchering 'barbarians'
And later via Catholicism 'superiority disguised' made western culture believe in the arrogant notion 'humanism'
Imagining 'humans' as superior because of 'holy ghost' = 'spirit from space' (creationism).
The western myth: Alexander wanted to unite all people with the bonds of peace.
Yes, all people ready to accept the dominance of the carriers of 'spirits' (The 'Spirituals'),
after wiping away all 'strange' 'barbarians' (terrorists) who objected to this fiction. The Oliver Stone movie is a fine example of the stealthy influence of unlimited 'juggling with words' (non-sense or freedom of speech).
|Hitler was sponsored by the big pro fascist part of Wall Street (US), Alexander the Great was sponsored by wealthy Greek
to wanted revenge for the devastating defeats against Darius the Great and Xerxes.
Alexander looted the treasury of Iran (more gold than Fort Knox in the United States),
and used to it finance his campaign of destruction in Central Asia and India
|Dhu'l-Qarnain [Alexander the Great] has been described as: a god who would call hell 'entertainment', a warlord who entertains himself torturing men and raping women.
Nevertheless still in the 21st century Alexander is described as:
perhaps the most important single person in western civilization with the possible exception of Jesus Christ.
- Alexander's presumably had his father Philip of Macedon murdered.
- Alexander killed all the men in Thebes, Tyre, Persepolis, and enslaved most women and children
- Alexander burned down the holy city of Persepolis, symbolic heart of the Persian Empire. Including the world famous HUGE library.
- Alexander's massacred all Branchidae, fo no reason but hatred.
- Alexander had Batis, the governor of Gaza, executed, in horrible way.
Alexander modelled himself on the greek half-god Achilles who himself had a goddess as mother.
Father Philip II began war against Athens and Thebes, ending in
The Hellenist League peace treaty between Greece and Macedon.
Extremely ambitious Alexander often complained to his friends that the his father was conquering countries, nothing would be left for him to do once he became king.
When twenty years old the half-god Alexander
has his father Philip murdered with help of his mother and with the killer army (superior military force; ancient variant of US-army
) began war against other countries.
Young Alexander said: Now I will become king of the whole world.
For Alexander war was only about winning or loosing, and he seemed unable to feel the deep elend connected with slavery, destruction and decimated families.
Alexander seriously saw himself as halfgod (superman),
not admitting that his father had let him a superior killing machine (by far the best army of those times).
The philosopher Anaxarchus convinced Alexander that as a king,
he was "a god among men" and therefore beyond good and evil, and could kill whoever he wanted.
Seen one way Alexanders conquests were great: he conquered the Persian Empire, that at his time accounted for more than 1/3 of the world population (around 110 million people, compared to 2.500 million in WWII).
That empire included parts of Central Asia, the Mediterranean, North Africa, and even European territories such as ancient Thrace and Macedonia.
Seen another way Alexander's deeds must not be exaggerated. In his times the world was still an empty place.
With his professional army Alexander raced through miles and miles of very scarsely populated fertile regions of kingdoms.
Apart from finally the huge but poorly organized persian armies he mostly massacred/enslaved town populations defended by mainly volunteers.
When in northern India Alexander reached more densily populated kingdoms with well organized armies he was immediately stopped.
Alexander was a man of violent times, but what made him unpredictable were his rages.
He killed thousands of civilians AFTER victories,only out of anger. And being a friend of the paranoid Alexander seemed to be a good recipee for early death.
Even his best friend was slaughtered.
Alexander also has his most brilliant general Parmenion murdered, the one who kept him alife and who was responsible for his victories.
20 years of superiority/xenophobic views of his tutor Aristotle had a HUGE influence on Alexander the Great (fundamental
Alexander needed a total defeat to realize that he was no 'god', and that some barbarians were better warriors more merciful than he.
It was only after being totally beaten in war with the Jains in India (modest people who didn't fear him
) that Alexander suddenly
grasped (paradigm shift
) that Aristotle's views were both arrogant and xenophobic,
and that he needed a new guru.
Contrary to most historical accounts, in the battle of Jhelum (Battle of the Hydaspes River
) Alexander`s cavalry was decimated.
To continue fighting would have been disastrous. Alexander asked Porus to stop fighting. Porus did not destroy the surrendered enemy.
Unluckily Alexander died soon after.
Alexander had many generals. Only 4 of them divided up his empire after his death.
Syria went to Seleucus, Egypt to Ptolomy
Alexander the Great / Ancient Royal Slavehunter with Ambitions / effect on the 21st century
Alexander as Zul-qarnain
Slayer of the common sense Persian Empire
In a series of overwhelming slaughters Alexander destroyed the Zoroastrian culture that like Asian cultures believed in unity of body and soul.
Not only by military actions, but also by in a kind of inquisition without trials burning and torturing to death practically all Zorastrian 'freethinkers'.
Juvenile predator Alexander (as adept of ghosts imagining guru Aristotle) treated the 'unity of body and mind' Zorastrian culture as an 'human-animal world of tyranny'. Interesting is that Zoroastrianism was the 'mother' of original Christianity.
the Persian Zoroastrian Empire was feared as a strong competitor but respected because of its wisdom in the ancient Greece of Socrates and Plato. The Zoroastrian king Cyrus had freed the Judah Jews from Babylon captivity.
The Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle (dividing reality in divine=spiritual=good and bodily=evil
) was officially adopted at the Council of Chalcedon
in 451 AC by the Roman Catholic Church
(The Catholic Church sees Alexander as 'the Great', but the Egyptian Coptics and the Syrian Jacobites never accepted the fantasy 'spirit', these religions saw Jesus as a very talented human
The Zul-qarnain mentioned in the Koran possibly (chance = 5%) is not Alexander the Great, but many of the stories about this Zul-qarnain no doubt are lent stories about Alexander the Great.
I myself have no problem with identifying Zul-qarnain with Alexander the Great. Between death of Alexander and the writing of the Koran are 1000 years. Enough to forget about the megalomaniac side of Alexander
the Great and to make his life into myth. Clear is that without Alexander the Great there would have been no Islam, because he destroyed the Persian Empire 1000 years before Islam repeated this feat.
Alexander the Great/Cursed robbed the Persian Empire of all its riches, and killed all of the Persian leaders that were a theoretical threat.
Persia was the greatest threat for Islam, you might call Alexander the Great the Godfather of Islam
Nevertheles completely peaceful variants of Islam developed in North Africa, so Alexander is the reason
that Islam is Aristotelian but not thereason for Islam for being so agressively expansive.
Did the Macedonian prince/king Alexander bring Greek civilization to the East? Much more probable he brought dualism of 'mind' and body to the West
(via the Romans) and was the 'Iskander the Cursed' as described in Persian history.
Words and Deeds
Better realize that for Alexander words were 'spiritual' and had no connection to deeds:
The mentor "Aristotle" of this Alexander was the godfather of Descartes' Enlightenment logic 'rationalism'. In 'rationalism' words have no connection to common sense, and juggling with words (reason)
is considered as superior to 'intuition'. Leading to arrogant notions like 'industrialism', 'liberty', 'democracy', 'power', 'efficiency', 'economy', 'management', ...
Alexander is quoted proudly saying something like: I do not divide human beings as the not-spiritual people do, in Hellenes and foreigners.
But Alexander had learned from his tutor Aristotle whom he worshipped like a 'god' to judge people on the fantasy 'virtue', and then compared them precisely to Hellenes. Arrogance was seen as abstract art by Alexander. If the difference with 'divine' Hellenes was too big, his body went into abstract art state 'painting with blood'.
Alexander's seemingly relativizing quotes show that for him lies were only 'politics' (mental art).
Vomiting clouds of 'spiritual' words during big 'eating' parties with fellow abstract artists in painting with blood.
All lying relaxedly on their backs after bloody 'artistry' (painting with swords, axes, ..., raping, .., burning).
The One: Realize that 'abstract art' like 'freedom of speech' and 'freedom of art' ends in 'very efficient' 'superiority'/'fascism'.
And Alexander was extremely talented in freedom of speech and 'art' (Alexander was mentally moulded by his mental coach Aristotle into a skilled 'Salvador Dali' of level super-Ronald-Reagan).
Alexander The Great and Dualism
|Something to ponder about: Alexander's Aristotelian thinking = valueing Form above Life;
('spirits' above 'common sense'; 'words' above 'action').
Alexander seriously thought to be a 'god'|
Due to the conquests of Alexander, the entire ancient middle east world spoke Greek,
which facilitated the spreading of the Gospel in Hellenic version, written in Greek.
The Greek dualist habit of dividing reality in an eternal 'soul' realm and temporary human reality
this way was spread from Hellenic Europe into Middle East and Asia (Persia, Afghanistan, Northern India,).
After Alexander the Great the role to spread dualism is continued by the Roman Empire and Mohammedanism (Islam).
The dualism in Islam is slightly different from Western Dualism. Islam also accepted a split of reality in spiritual and material, in western dualism spiritual
is seen as superior to material, in Islamic Dualism spiritual is treated as parallel to material.
In political practice this didn't result in huge differenc. Here I'll focus on western dualism
Aristotelian belief in a split between Form (god) and Reality (life) was taken as house-religion in 451 AC at the Council of Chalcedon
by the succeeding Roman Empire, and brought
to Europe as Roman Christianity. The abstract manipulating of the Aristotelian body-mind-split
resulted in the Western World in great engineering skills.
Original Judean Christianity followed Zoroastrianism
with 'Unity of Mind and Body'.
later refined Zoroastrianism.
It's a well known phenomenon that many young Western people have no clue if behavior is acceptable or not.
In fact they behave like little 'gods'.
Worrying behavior, the rigid laws of governments don't work and relativizing behavior of common sense people is attracting agression.
The present Western Societý with modern variant of slavery can be said to be of Aristotelian design.
Strengthened in Enlightenment by the mind-body split of Descartes.
A thin toplayer of managers only practices 'thinking' and leaves all labour to slaves called 'workers.
Most goverments behave like 'gods' too, calling such behavior 'rational'.
Great in acting Horrible
If we go on this way then in say a century a stepchild of Oliver Stone will make a myth around the slightly mad but aimable Hitler the Great (and his angel Eva)
Protestant multinational IBM almost succeeded to clean Google of links to annoying websites abouts the very dubious role of IBM in the Holocaust.
Maybe Oliver Stone could make a movie about the charitable capitalist institution IBM.
But to be fair: no one person in earth history, has destroyed so much land and killed that many nice people so fast as Alexander the 'Great'
How does this relate to Thomas Kuhn? Simply this: while some 'modern' day observations cannot be explained in conventional theory,
they can and have been explained in other Kuhnian paradigms
'Rationality' often finds repeatable phenomenona that don't fit the basics of 'rationality'.
Others in another paradigm might have made a similar discovery long ago
and have given an explanation within their paradigm. Descriptions by historians of
Alexander the 'Great' are dependent of the 'paradigm'.
99.9% of 'science has not even the faintest realization of its own limitations . . . , and fights 'wars on terrorism'.
|There is an Order of Alexander the Great,
dedicated to the international promotion of Freedom, Justice, and Peace
with honory member former President Ronald Reagan, who with billions of tax money supported
right wing supremacy worldwide (Chili, Argentine, Guatemala, Nicaragua, ..., Israel, Afghanistan, ...).
Throughout his presidency, Reagan supported the apartheid government in South Africa and even labeled Nelson Mandela's African National Congress as a notorious terrorist organization.
Henk Tuten: it makes more sense to notice that the top of the US Army is 'criminally' prejudiced,
and in deviant paradigm way creates and maintains conflicts worldwide
(in common sense cultures seen as criminally paranoid). In this prejudiced behavior US Army was preceded by 'aristocrats' behind the British Army and
commanding catholic armies. The catholic leaders introduced 'Inquisition'.
The British Army introduced 'hell camps' (concentration camps). US Army labeled 'hell camps' for Red Indians
as 'reservates', and is until now the ONLY army who used atom bombs in wartime.
The Total Paradigm Shift of Alexander and Aristotle
There is an Order of Alexander the Great, with had as honory members: Wernher von Braun, former President Ronald Reagan, Salvador Dali ...
This Order writes:
|Born in the year 356 B.C. in Pella, and died at the age of only 33 in Babylon on June 10, 323 B.C.
In memory remained the spreading of the Greek culture to the East, the mutual enhancement of the cultures. In memory also remained the fact that in spite of conquest expeditions and battles, Alexander also stood for cooperation, tolerance, promotion of the arts and science and an engagement for a world, in which the human dignity is a fundamental element.
The era of Alexander the Great has influenced architecture, science, and humanistic and spiritual thinking up till today. Emperors, kings, scientists and even popes have chosen his name in admiration of Alexander.
Well, that speaks for itself. You can say such generalities about Adolf Hitler too
"Remember that in spite of concentration camps and bombing of innocent cities, Hitler also stood for cooperation under one Fuehrer, promoting of the Arian race, preserving arts and rocket science "
My version for Alexander:
Alexander the Great (356BC-323BC linear time) isolated Europe from Asia by making the Middle East into a dual cultural reality (of Aristotelian design)
that was deviant from Asian cultural realities like Taoism and Buddhism.
Catholicism was based on Aristotelian views.
And later this Hellenic Reality, together with Arabia, became base for Islam (Muslim Catholicism) to expand into Hindu and Buddhist Asia.
Aristotelian societies (like european countries and muslim countries) always require slavery in some form.
Alexander was The Accursed, and without realizing caused two world wars
2500 years ago in around 10 years Alexander the Accursed on a plunder mission succeeded in
pushing Middle East and Western World for the next 2500 years in the 'Aristotelian Paradigm'.
Especially Persia as the power/cultural centre of the Middle East was damaged without repair, and indirectly Alexander after his death 'gave'
the Middle East (especially Persia, Egypt, 'Turkey') to the Roman Empire and the Muhammedans.
Two ages after death of Alexander the Cursed the Roman Empire took the by him conquered countries around the Mediterranean Sea from Alexander's generals. The Roman Empire never succeeded in conquering Persia.
Many ages later the Roman Empire used Muhammad to break the power of the Meccan traders.
But instead the relatively primitive Muhammedans took power in all of the Middle East (history repeats itself with US-empire and
Osama bin Laden)
. The first victim of of the Muhammedan jihad was Persia (after Arabia itself).
The Seulecid Empire (empire of 1 Alexander's generals) lost Buddhism for the Middle East (Greco-Bactrian Buddhism).
The Romans inherited the dualistic Nicomachean Ethics of his Alexander's tutor Aristotle.
Islam took over this ethics afterwards. This resulted in the whole western world + Middle East becoming Aristotelian (in different variants).
The Nicomachean Ethics were the very base of Protestantism (responsible for hundreds of millions of dead all over earth)
Interesting compact overview situating Alexander in his 'time, not important that it is written by a rabbi